20 - 90 days (range 4 days - 19 years)
Throughout duration of clinical illness
From saliva of infected animals via bites. Rarely, contamination of mucous membranes by infectious material, aerosol transmission and organ transplantation.
Although reservoir is present in many mammalian species, dog bites account for the majority of human infections. Rabies has not been reported locally since 1953. but remains prevalent in many parts of the region and the world. Recent decrease in human rabies cases has been due to improved post-exposure treatment as well as elimination of rabies in animal reservoirs via oral immunisation of wildlife.