Salmonella typhi (Typhoid fever)
Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C (Paratyphoid fever).
1 - 3 weeks
During acute infection and until stool and urine clearance.
Faeco-oral route through contaminated food or water. Transmission through sexual contact, especially among men who have sex with men have been documented.
There is no animal reservoir so ultimately the disease always involves human-to- human spread.
During the period 2005-2009, there were 349 reported cases of typhoid (94% imported) and 139 reported cases of paratyphoid (88.5% imported). The disease is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent.