Vibrio cholerae 01, biotypes El Tor and classical, serotypes Inaba and Ogawa.
V. cholerae 0139, synonym Bengal (South Asia).
Few hours to 5 days
Throughout the duration of the illness and for a few days after clinical recovery. There is no chronic carrier state.
- Toxigenic cholera (V. cholera 01 and 0139) are free living organisms found in fresh and brackish water often in association with copepods, shellfish and aquatic plants.
- Infection acquired from drinking water in which V. cholera is found naturally or into which it was introduced by symptomatic or asymptomatic infected persons.
- Contaminated fish and shellfish produce, or leftover cooked grains that have not been properly reheated.
- Only rarely is cholera transmitted by direct person-to-person contact.
Cholera occurs sporadically in Singapore. There were 4 notified cases in 2009 compared with 7 cases in 2007 and 1 case in 2008.
In 2009, a total of 221,226 cases including 4,946 deaths, were reported in 45 countries with a fatality rate of 2.24%. Resource poor areas continue to report the vast majority of cases.