Measles (Rubeola) virus
8 - 14 days.
Just before onset of prodromal symptoms to within 4 days after onset of the rash (usually 4 days before to 4 days after rash onset).
Airborne transmission by respiratory droplets and by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions and less commonly by articles freshly soiled with nose and throat secretions.
Measles vaccination was first introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in October 1976 and made compulsory in August 1985. The monovalent measles vaccine was replaced by the trivalent measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in January 1990. The vaccination coverage was between 85% and 89% and the annual incidence of the disease declined to between 123 and 218 cases during the period 1985-1991. A resurgence of measles was noted in 1992 - 1993 but the highest incidence was seen in 1997 when a total of 1413 cases were notified. This resurgence was not due to vaccine failure but a build-up of susceptibles among older children, youths and adults who were not vaccinated. A catch-up measles (MMR) vaccination campaign was conducted in July-November 1997 for all students aged 12-18 years. In January 1998, the two-dose MMR vaccination schedule was introduced with the second dose given to primary school leavers (11+ years old).
There were 13 laboratory confirmed cases of measles reported in 2009, including 5 foreigners who sought medical treatment in Singapore.